Biology Edexcel Triple

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fermentation of milk to yoghurt:

equipment sterilised

milk pasteurised( heated 40) then cooled

*starter culture added, incubated- 40 in fermenter

*bacteria ferment lactose sugar into lactic acid - clots and solidifies milk into yoghurt

flavours and colours added

Making of soy sauce by fermentation

cooked soy beans and roasted wheat mixed together

* mixture fermented by Aspergillus Fungus

*mixture fermented by yeasts

*fermented by Lactobacillus bacterium

*filtered to remove gungy bits

*Pasteurised to kill of microorganisms

Functional Foods

= a food that has some form of health benefit beyond basic nutrition.

Plant stanol esters = lower blood cholesterol and reduce the risk of heart disease.

                                 food manufacturers add them to spreads and dairy products so people who are worried about cholesterol buy them

                                 They occur naturally in plants, but in very small quantities. Produced commercially by using bacteria to convert sterols ( fats found in plants) into stanols


People take them to promote the growth of 'good bacteria' in the gut.

Prebiotics are…


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