You should be able to understand what the appropriate proportions of carbohyrate, protein, lipid, vitamins, minerals, fibre and water.
Humans need more energy (carbohydrates) and protein whilst they need a little less Vitamins and Minerals and even less fat/lipids. THe most they need is water.
Recall sources and describe functions of the food groups as components of the diet.
Carbohydrates - startchy foods:potatoes,pasta (long term energy) sugary foods:chocolate,sweets (short term energy). Immediate energy source.
Proteins - fish, eggs, milk, soya. Growth and repair.
Lipids - butter and oil. Energy store, insulation and cell membranes.
Minerals---clacium - milk,eggs. Bones and teeth.
iodine - fish, salt. Thyroid gland (throat).
iron - liver, spinach. Red blood cells.
phosphorus - meat, milk, fish. Bones and teeth.
Vitamins---Vit. A - milk, butter, carrots.Skin and vision.
Vit. B - yaest, liver, wholemeal bread. Nervous system and muscles
Vit. C - oranges, lemons, grapefruit. Skin and blood vessles
Vit. D - milk, butter, fish. Strong bones and teeth
Fibre - wholegrains, fruit + veg. Adds bulk to food to aid peristalsis
Water - river etc. Acts as a solvent
Energy requirements vary with activity levels, age and pregnancy.
Age- As achild gets older they need more energy for growth. Teenagers need more energy than adults.
Activity- The more active a person is, the more energy they need.
Gender- Males need more energy than females (muscle mass)
Bodysize- Bigger people need more energy than smaller people
Recognise the stuctures of the alimentry canal (digestive sytem), describing the function of the mouth, oesophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine and pancreas
Mouth --> oesphagus --> stomach --> duodeum --> illeum --> colon --> rectum --> anus. Also appendix, liver and salivary glands.