Biology B7

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B7 – Further Biology


·         Respiration isn’t breathing in and out.

o   It’s the process of releasing energy from glucose, which happens constantly in every cell.

·         Aerobic respiration needs plenty of oxygen.

o   Glucose + Oxygen → Carbon Dioxide + Water (+ energy released)

·         Energy released from respiration is used to make ATP.

o   It’s broken down to ADP when energy is released.

o   ATP is synthesised from ADP using energy from respiration.

·         You respire more when you exercise.

o   More ATP is used to contract you’re muscles so you need more energy, so respiration increases.

o   Breathing rate increased to get more oxygen into the blood.

o   Heart rate increases to get glucose and oxygenated blood around the body to your muscle quicker, and remove CO₂ quickly at the same time.

·         Anaerobic respiration doesn’t use oxygen at all.

o   Sometimes you can’t supply your body with all the oxygen that it needs.

o   So in anaerobic respiration  glucose → lactic acid (+ energy released) and you produce energy but lactic acid builds up in your muscles.

o   You need oxygen to clear up this acid, so you are in an oxygen debt.

o   So you keep breathing for a while after you stop exercise.

Blood and blood typing

·         Blood is a fluid made of cells, platelets and plasma.

o   Red blood cells – Transports oxygen from lungs to all the cells in the body.

o   Plasma – Liquid that carries everything.

o   White blood cells – Fight infection from microorganisms.

o   Platelets – Small cell fragments that help the blood to clot.

·         Blood type is important in transfusions.

o   If you have the wrong blood in you it can trigger the immune system to attack it and it will make the blood clot.

o   Blood type A has A antigens and B anti bodies, so B has B antigens and A antibodies.

o   AB has no antibodies so can take all blood but because of its 2 antigens it can’t give blood.

o   O is opposite to AB as it has no antigens but both antibodies.

Inheritance of Blood types


·         Alleles are different versions of the same gene.

o   ABO blood type is determined by a single gene that has 3 alleles.

o   Io is for blood type O. Ia for A, and Ib for B.

o   Io is recessive but Ia and Ib are co-dominant.


The Circulatory System


Humans have a double circulatory system.

o   One pumps deoxygenated blood to the lungs and back to the heart.

o   One pumps oxygenated blood around and back to the heart.

·         Chemicals are being exchanged between cells and capillaries.

o   Arteries branch into capillaries which are tiny blood vessels.

o   Small molecules…



This is so helpful! Thank you so much, this has helped me out a lot! :D


thank you its a good recap of everything in b7 amazinggg thnxx


i read through another and this is more detailed and informative thanl you so much

Jade Longman

omg this is just what i was looking for, thank you 

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