Biology B2 - Adaptations

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Animals and plants are adapted to their environment. They have characteristics that allow them to survive there. This makes them better able to compete for limited resources.


  • Polar bears are well adapted for survival in the Arctic. Their adaptations include
  • a white appearance as camouflage from prey on the snow and ice
  • thick layers of fat and fur for insulation against the cold
  • a small surface area to volume ratio, to minimise heat loss
  • a greasy coat that sheds water after swimming
  • large furry feet to distribute their load and increase grip on the ice.

Camels live in deserts that are hot and dry during the day, but cold at night. They are well adapted for survival in the desert. Their adaptations include:

  • large, flat feet to spread their weight on the sand
  • thick fur on the top of the body for shade, and thin fur elsewhere to allow easy heat loss
  • a large surface area to volume ratio to maximise heat loss
  • the ability to go for a long time without water - they don't store water in their humps, but they lose very


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