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Animal cells: 

Nucleus - contains chromosomes made of DNA. Controls activities of the cell.

Cytoplasm - jelly-like substance where most of the chemical reactions happen. It contains enzymes that control the chemical reactions. 

Cell membrane -  keeps the cell stable and contrasts the movement of substances into and out of the cell.

Mitochondria - rod-shaped structures that release energy from sugar during aerobic respiration.

Ribosomes - ball-shaped structures in cytoplasm where proteins are made.

Plant cells:

 The same as animal cells AND... 

Cell wall - layer outside of the cell membrane, made of cellulose which supports the cell.

Permanent Vacuole - fluid-filled cavity containing cell sap which helps support the cell .

Chloroplasts - small disc found in cytoplasm, contains chlorophyll which traps light for photosynthesis.

A YEAST cell is a single-celled organism that only has a NUCLEUS, CYTOPLASM and a CELL MEMBRANE surrounded by a CELL WALL.

Bacterial cells do not have a nucleus! They are also single-celled microorganisms that has CYTOPLASM and a CELL MEMBRANE surrounded by a CELL WALL. Their gentic material is in the cytoplasm. 

Palisade Leaf Cells are adapted for photosynthesis:

  • They have chloroplasts at the top of the cell so they are closer to the light
  • Their tall shape means that they have a lot of surface area down the side for absorbing CO2 
  • Their thin shape means that lots of them can fit at the top of a leaf

Guard Cells are adapted to open and close pores: 

  • They have a kidney shape which opens and closes the stomata in a leaf
  • When a plant has a lot of water the cells fill with it and makes the stomata open so gases can be exchanged
  • When the plant becomes short…


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