biology B1 (5)

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  • Created by: haidee
  • Created on: 30-04-12 18:36

What makes a healthy diet?

  • A balanced diet should contain the following items in the correct amounts: carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins, minerals, fibre and water
  • This provides you with the correct amount of energy to keep your body healthy
  • If your diet is not balanced you will end up suffering from malnutrition
  • This happens when you eat the wrong amount of each type of food nutrient
  • This could be eating too much or too little
  • This can lead to a person being overweight or underweight
  • An unbalanced diet may lead to deficiency diseases to conditions such as type 2 diabetes
  • Minerals:
  • -are chemical elements such a calcium, sodium and potassium
  • -you need more of some than others
  • -those you need more of are called major minerals, those you need less of are called trace minerals
  • -minerals are needed by teeth and bones
  • -some help your heart to beat properly, and some help your nervous system and body cells to work efficiently
  • -others form part of enzymes and hormones
  • Fats:
  • -are used as energy stores in the body and contain important vitamins
  • -they contain more energy than carbohydrates
  • -too much saturated fat in your diet is not good for you
  • -any fat that is not used up is stored in fat cells around the body
  • -this makes you put on weight
  • -unsaturated fats mainly come from plants and fish
  • -unsaturated fats are much better for you than saturated fats as they contain many essential vitamins and minerals
  • Carbohydrates:
  • -give you energy
  • -examples are sugars and starches
  • -sugars such as glucose can be used by the body straight away
  • -starches are more difficult to digest
  • -starch has to be turned into glucose before it can be used
  • Fibre:
  • -is important for a healthy digestive system
  • -cellulose and fibre are also carbohydrates
  • -cellulose is difficult for us to digest
  • -it is often called fibre or roughage
  • Proteins:
  • -are used to build muscles, to repair damaged tissues and to help young bodies grow
  • -they are also used to produce important chemicals such as enzymes and hormones
  • Water:
  • -essential for staying alive, 60% of the body is water
  • Vitamins:
  • -play a very important part in almost all bodily processes, including the immune system etc
  • -there are many different vitamins and minerals so it is important to eat a wide variety of foods
  • -some vitamins are lost in cooking
  • -some vitamins are lost in urine

Deficiency diseases

  • Shortage of energy foods such as fats and carbohydrates can make you too thin
  • Shortage of proteins affects your growth
  • The amounts of vitamins you need are small
  • But if you don’t get enough certain processes in the body will stop working
  • The problems caused by the lack of a particular nutrient is called a deficiency disease
  • Lack of vitamin A: scurvy- weakness and bleeding gums and under skin
  • Lack of vitamin D: rickets- soft bones due to lack of absorption of calcium
  • Lack of iron: anaemia- tiredness owing to lack of haemoglobin in red blood cells
  • Lack of


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