Biological molecules are organic molecules made up primarily of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and oxygen. There are 3 groups of molecules; Carbohydrates, proteins and lipids.
- Carbohydrates contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen.
- There are 3 types of carbohydrates; monosaccharides, disaccharides and polysaccherides.
- Monosaccharide (monomers) and disaccharide (dimers) are simple sugars. Monosaccharides include glucose, fructose and ribose. Disaccharides include Maltose, sucrose and lactose.
- Polysaccharides are complex sugars such as starch, glycogen and cellulose.
- Their main functions are to act as a source of energy in both plants and animals, and to play a structural role in plant cell walls.
- Monosaccharides are used for energy and building blocks for other carbohydrates.
- Triose = C3 H6 O3
- Pentose = C5 H10 O5 (ribose)
- Hexose = C6 H12 O6 (glucose + fructose)
- Some compounds can have the same chemical formula but different structural formula.This is called structural isomerism. An example of this is glucose. in which it has alpha or beta structure.
- This is when two monosaccharides are bonded together by a glycosidic bond, which is a condensation reaction due to the elimination of water. Hydrolysis is used to break this bond.
- The 3 most…