Biology 2.1.2

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Carbon chains and rings

  • Carbon atoms have 4 electrons in their outer orbitals, they can gain stability by sharing 4 electrons with other atoms
  • Sharing of electrons forms a strong bond between the atoms, known as covalent bond- bonded atoms forms a molecule
  • A molecule is very stable because each atom in the molecule is sharing in the electrons to give a stable, full outer energy level.

Monomers and Polymers

  • The term monomers refers to a single, small molecule, many of which can be joined together to form a polymer
  • Although they are made from smaller molecules, lipids are


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