Biology 10.4 Plant Cell Structure.

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  • Created by: Anna
  • Created on: 21-04-13 15:36

Plants = eukaryotic cells - have a distinct nucleus and membrane-bound organelles e.g. mitochondria and chloroplasts.

Leaf palisade cell

Leaf palisade cell = typical plant cell, carries out photosynthesis so has these features:

  • Long thin cells, form continuous layer to absorb sunlight.
  • Many chloroplasts, arrange themselves to get maximum amount of sunlight.
  • Large vacuole, pushes cytoplasm and chloroplasts to the edge of the cell.


Vary in size and shape but typically are disc-shaped. Other main features:

  • Chloroplast envelope = double plasma membrane that surrounds organelle, highly selective in what it allows in and out of chloroplast.
  • Grana (granum sing.) = stacks of up to 100 disc-like structures called thylakoids, where first stage of photosynthesis takes place.
  • Thylakoids = contain photosynthetic pigment called chlorophyll, some have tubular extensions that join thylakoids with adjacent grana.
  • Stroma = fluid filled matrix, where second stage of photosynthesis takes place, conatin other structures e.g. starch grains.

Chloroplasts are adapted to their function of harvesting sunlight in these ways:

  • Granal membranes provide large surface area…


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