Biology 1

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  • Created by: Sophie
  • Created on: 28-08-11 11:33

Control and coordination





Change in environment detected by receptors in sense organs

Groups of cells, sensitive to stimulus

Information from sense organs is sent.

Muscles and glands respond according to information

·       Receptors

o   Eyes - Light

o   Ears - Sound and balance

o   Nose and Tongue - Smell and taste

o   Skin - Touch pressure and temperature

·       Types of nerve cells (Neurones)

o   Sensory - Carry signals to CNS

o   Motor - Carry signals away from CNS, controls response

o   Relay - connect other neutrons together

·       CNS - Brain and Spinal cord

·       Reflex actions - Automatic and rapid response to stimuli, protects from harm


·       Chemical messengers which travel in the blood to coordinate many processes

·       Slow message

·       Affect rate of metabolism, growth and sexual development

Menstrual cycle:

Hormone: FSH

Made by: Pituitary gland

What it does: Causes egg to mature, stimulates ovaries to produce oestrogen.

Hormone: Oestrogen

Made by: Ovaries

What it does: Stops FSH so no more eggs, causes lining to thicken to receive egg

Hormone: LH

Made by: Pituitary gland

What it does: Stimulates the mature egg to be released

·       Contraceptive pill - contains oestrogen, so no eggs mature.

·       Fertility drugs - contains FSH, stimulates eggs to be made.

Healthy eating

·       7 food groups

o   Carbohydrates -  energy

o   Fats - warmth

o   Proteins - growth and repair

o   Fibre - digestion

o   Vitamins and Minerals - healthy bones, skins and blood

o   Water - hydration

·       Unbalanced diet = malnourished

o   Become too thin or too fat suffer deficiency diseases

o   Deficiency diseases - lack of specific nutrients

o   Obesity leads to :


-  High blood pressure

-  Diabetes

-  Heart disease

·       Metabolic Rate - rate of chemical reactions in body

o   Varies because of : Age, gender, genetic traits etc.

o   Metabolic rate increases whilst exercising

·       Cholesterol

o   Too much = Clogs blood vessels

- Leads to heart disease

- Increase blood pressure

o   Liver controls the amount

- Makes new cholesterol

- Removes it from blood

o   Low-density lipoproteins (LDLs)

- Bad cholesterol

- Causes disease

o   High- density lipoproteins (HDLs)

- Good cholesterol

o   Saturated fats - from animals

- Rises cholesterol in blood

- Increases liver making

o   Polyunsatured and Monounsaturated Fats - from plants

- Decreases cholesterol in blood

- Increase removal from body

- Improves LDL and HDL balance

·       Salt

o   Too much = increase risk of heart disease

o   Cause high blood pressure

o   Processed foods have lots of salt and fat

Drugs, Alcohol and Tobacco

·       Tolerance - body gets used to drug, increase intake



Poppy O'Hagan


Useful but could have been done in a quiz format



rubbish shouldnt have bothered 


very helpful gadi

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