Biology- B1

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Healthy Living- What you're body needs:

  • Protein- Growth and repair of cells
  • Carbohydrates- Energy
  • Fat- Energy and insulation of organs
  • Vitamins- Hair, nails, skin
  • Fibre- Roughage/ digestion
  • Minerals- Iron, red blood cells, production, calcium for bones
  • Water- Hydration

Pathogens and Disease

  • Semmeiweiss recognised the importance of hand washing in the prevention of spreading some infectious diseases. By insisting that doctors washed their hands before examining patcients, he greatly reduced the number of deaths from infectius' diseases in his hospital.
  • There are 2 types of disease- Bacterial and Viral:
  • Bacteria- Reproduce rapidly!!! can be killed with anti-biotics which puncture the cell wall and begin to make you feel better after a period of time.
  • Exanples of Bacterial infections include:
  • Food posioning
  • Sore throats
  • Tuberculosis
  • Tetnus
  • Thyroid
  • Whooping cough
  • Virus- cannot be killed with anti- biotics. Virus' get into you're cells and produce spors which burst and infect other cells.
  • Examples of Virus' include:
  • Influenza
  • Mumps
  • Chicken Pox
  • Small Pox
  • Polio
  • Rabies
  • German Measles
  • Viral menigites
  • The diseases and the severity caused by microbes depend on the type of microbe from the listed above.
  • 2 diseases linked to obesity:
  • Diebites
  • Artharitis

How pathogens are spread

  • Water
  • Insect bites
  • Animals
  • Mother while in womb/ direct contact
  • Indirect contact
  • Airborne
  • Cuts/ open wounds
  • Food

White blood cells

  • They grow arms around the bacteria and then they digest it.
  • Antibodies- a y shaped protein produced by the body to fight the disease. The white blood cell produces antibodies that fit onto the pathogen antigen. The antibody is specific to the antigen.
  • Antigin- A protein located on the surface pf a pathogen that the body identifies as being foreign
  • WBC produce antitoxins to neutralibe the toxins produced by pathogens.

Immunity through vaccinations

  • Dead or inactive pathogen into you're body
  • Pathogens have antigens on them
  • Antigens stimulate white blood cells to produce antibodies
  • Antibodies attach the antigins and destroy the pathogen
  • WBC remember the antigen on the pathogen and can make antibodies faster the next time they see it.

Antibiotic resistance

  • How do superbugs happen?
  • Mutation- Random and rare chages in you're DNA (allele/ gene)
  • If bacteria cannot be killed by a certain antibiotic then we can say that in resistant to that type of antibiotic.
  • For example, MRSA stands for Methicilliam Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus and is called as such because is resistant to methicillin.


  • It is a waxy fat substance
  • Too much cholesterol is bad (LDL) as it clogs arteries.
  • Travels arould blood cells
  • HDL is a good form of cholesterol which you're body needs to function properly
  • 75% made from the liver and the extra 25% from the food you eat


  • Exercise helps people lose weight because it increases you're metobolic rate. Exercise helps you take in more oxygen. Fat stores are broken down or used up. Exercise also helps you're circulation.
  • Exercise is important fpr a helathy body because it burns off fat, lowers cholesterol, decreases blood pressure and lowers riskes of artharitis.

Nerves and Hormones

The nervous system and hormones enable us to respond…


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