Biological Molecules- Water

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Structure of water molecule:


 ·        The hydrogen atoms are covalently bonded to one oxygen atom

·        Bonds are strong and hard to split

d+ = Delta minus (oxygen has a small negative charge)

d- = Delta plus (hydrogen has a small positive charge)


·        Covalent bond is an electron sharing bond and in this case, the sharing is not equal. The oxygen gets more than its fair share and it gives it its small negative charge


·        The tiny charges mean the water molecules are attracted to each other. The positive hydrogen atoms are attracted to the negative oxygen atoms because positive is attracted to negative and vice versa. This is called a HYDROGEN BOND:


In solid water –ice- the hydrogen bonds hold the water molecules together in a rigid lattice formation.

As in all solids, the molecules vibrate, but they do not move around.

In liquid water, the molecules have more kinetic energy, moving around past each other, forming fleeting hydrogen bonds with


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