For OCR Biology Unit 2
Contain 3 elements: Carbon, Hydrogen and Oxygen.
Are found in 3 forms: Monosaccharides, Disaccharides and Polysaccharides.
When 2 Monosaccharides are condensed together, one monosaccaride loses a H atom from its number one carbon while the other loses its OH group from its 4th carbon. This forms water and a disaccharide with a glycosidic bond. This is a condensation reaction.
Functions of carbohydrates:
Substrate for respiration,
Intermediate in respiration,
Recognition of molecules outside of the cell.
Are made of the same 3 elements as carbohydrates but in different proportions.
The most common type of lipid is the triglyceride;
Are made up of 3 fatty acid chains attatched to a glycerol molecule.
High energy source,
production of metabolic water,
A phosphate group replaces one fatty acid chain. This means that the head is soluble while the tails are not. because of this Phospholipids arrange themselves into a bilayer in cell membranes etc.
Proteins are in the plasma membrane and are used for cell signalling, making enzymes, growth and repair, they are anitbodies and they also make haemogloben, collogen and kerotin.
Primary Structure: Proteins are made of…