Biodiversity

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Habitat- an area inhabited by a species, which may contain physical or living factors which the species is adapted to.

Biodiversity- the variety of living organisms in an area. Can exist as habitat diversity, species diversity, or genetic diversity.

Species- a group of organisms similar in anatomy, physiology, biochemistry and appearance, who are able to reproduce to make fertile offspring. Species diversity refers to teh number of different species and the abundance of each in an area.

Genetic diversity- the variation of alleles within a population.

Random sampling- study a small section fo a habitat as a representation of the whole area. Sites are chosen at random eg a random number generator for coordinates. 

Quadrat- 1metre grid placed at random to measure abundance using ACFOR scale or percentage cover using a point frame.

Transect- line transect where all the plants touching the line are recorded. Interrupted belt transect where a quadrat is used at set intervals. Continuous belt transect where the quadrat is moved along the whole line.

Sweep netting- insects are caught with a stout net, collected with a pooter and identified on a white sheet. Suitable in low vegetation.

Tree kicking- knock branch with a stout stick to dislodge small animals, which fall onto the white sheet for identificaiton.

Pitfall trap- container buried in the soil with some leaf litter inside to prevent the organisms from escaping. Contains cover to prevent drowning during rain.

Tullgren funnel-leaf litter is in the top of the funnel, which dries as warms as light is shone. This froces the animals downwards, where they are collected inside a jar.

Light trap- UV light attracts insects eg moths, which settle on a collecting jar where they are counted/identified and then released.

Species richness- Number of species present in a habitat. Qualitative ACFOR scale.

Species evenness- Relative abundance of species species in a habitat. Quantitative measure by sampling/observing animals eg Total Population = (C1 X C2) / C3.

Simpson's index of diversity D=1- sumof (n/N)^2. High number means a more diverse habitat, so it is more stable and able to withstand changes eg predators/disease.

Classification- process of sorting living things into groups. Natural classification relfects evolutionary relationships as into groups by relations/ancestors.

Taxonomy- study of the principles of classification.

Phylogeny- study of evolutionary relationships between organisms.

Prokaryotae- no nucleus (loop of naked DNA in the cytoplasm), no membrane-bound organelles, small ribosomes, respiration on cell surface membrane, free living/parasitic, smaller than eukaryotae.

Protoctista- eukaryotic, mostly single-celled, mostly free-living, autotrophic and heterotrophic nutrition, plant and animal-like features.

Fungi- eukaryotic, chitin cell wall, mycelium consisting of hyphae, multinucleate cytoplasm, free lviving, saprotrophic.

Plantae- eukaryotic, multicellular, cellulose cell wall, autotrophic nutrition through photosynthesis, produce embryos from fertilised eggs.

Animalia-eukaryotic, multicellular, heterotrophic nutrition, usually able to move around, fertilised eggs develop into a blastula.

Classification is used for convenience, to identify organisms, and to study the evolutionary relationships between organisms. First classificaiton system developed by Carl Linnaeus.

Binomial system- genus name and species name. In Latin so no differences in…

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