Theres one bio. factor associated with a significantly increased risk of criminal behaviour...XY.
The Lombrosian Project: criminals as a seperate species- deviation in head size, asymetry of face, eye defects... CRIMINALS BORN NOT MADE (his work now largely discredited but very influential)
Ferri and Garofalo- italian scholars who continued the work of Lombroso..
- Ferri emphasised importance of social and environ. factors in explaining criminality.
- Garofolo saw criminals as ppl who lacked concern for others and were 'developmentally deficient'. ID'd 4 classes of criminal: