2.1 (2) - Biochemicals and bonds
Covalent Bonds and Carbon
Outer shells on atoms have a maximum of 8 electrons on them, the first shell around the atom, has 2.
Carbon has 4 electrons on it's outer shell, so gains stability by sharing 4 electrons with other atoms. The sharing of electrons forms a strong covalent bond. The bonded atoms form a molecule. Carbon can make a maximum of 4 covalent bonds.
Double bonds and carbon
Double bonds occur when two bonds are made with another atom. C=C are double bonds in hydrocarbon chains, and C=O double bonds are found in many molecules, including organic acids.
Monomers and Polymers
Monomers refer to a single,…