- Patriarchal - based on male domination and female subordination.
- Religion is a patriarchal institution that reflects and perpetuates this inequality between men and women.
- Religious beliefs functions as a patriarchal ideology that legitimates or justifies female subordination.
Evidence of patriarchal influence in religious belief systems
- (1) Religious organisations = male dominated.
- EXAMPLE = Orthodox Judaism, Islam and Catholicism forbid women to become priests or religious leaders.
- One fifth of all clergy in the Church of England are now women.
- (2) Places of worship often segregate the sexes.
- Women's participation may be restricted - they may not be allowed to preach or lead prayers or read from the sacred texts.
- Taboos that regard menstruation, pregnancy and childbirth as a problem
- Not allowed in sacred spaces.
- (3) Religion's attitudes to sexuality.
- Turner - the be pure in mind and deed by repressing the need for pleasure, especially sexual pleasure.
- The female presence make celibacy more difficult for men.
- Watson - their seductiveness may lead men astray.
- Having to wear the bhurka and veil should male exploitation and repression of women.
- (4) Sacred texts largely feature the doings of male gods, prophets etc, and are usually written and interpreted by men.
- EXAMPLES = in the Bible/Qu'ran says 'men are in charge of women'.
- Christianity is also inherently patriarchal, with men made in 'the image and glory of God' and women made 'for the glory of man'.
- (5) Religious laws and customs may give women fewer rights than men.
- EXAMPLE = in access to divorce, how many spouses they may marry, decision-making etc.
- The Catholic…
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