B9.1 Aerobic respiration
During aerobic respiration glucose reacts with oxygen transferring energy. Carbon dioxide and water are the waste products of the reaction. This reaction is exothermic since it transfers energy to the environment, more so when bonds form than when bonds are broken. The energy transferred heats the environment and is used for cellular reactions.
glucose + oxygen -> carbon dioxide + water
C6H12O6 + 6O2 -> 6CO2 + 6H2O
More muscle cells means more mitochondria are needed so the amount of aerobic respiration needed is met.
The cytoplasm is the site of anaerobic respiration and is where enzymes are made.
The nucleus has the genetic code for enzymes involved in respiration.
Mitochondria is the site of aerobic respiration. They have a folded inner membrane for a larger surface area for the enzymes involved in respiration.
The cell membrane allows substances to enter and exit the cell freely.
The positive test result for carbon dioxide is when limewater goes cloudy: the higher the concentration of CO2, the quicker it goes cloudy.
The energy transferred in respiration has several uses.
- Build up large molecules from smaller ones
- Break larger molecules down into smaller ones
- Contraction of muscles
- Maintain a constant internal body temperature
- Move mineral ions (plants)
- Convert nutrients into amino acids which are used to make proteins (plants)
B9.2 Response to exercise
Glucose is stored as glycogen and is converted back when it is necessary to transfer energy needed for…