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endoskeltons- inside the flesh

exoskeltons- outside the flesh

endoskeltons have an advantage over the exoskeltons

endoskeltons- does not restrict growth, usually lighter and smaller, is a framework for easy attachment of muscles, allows flexibilty, grows with the body.

exoskeltons- the body inside can increase it number of cells but not size, has to be shed to allow the body inside to grow.

humans- made from bone and cartilage- living tissues- susceptible to infection but can grow and repair themselves.

bones start of as cartilage-stages of this-

cartilage is relaced gradually by addition of calcium and phosphorus- ossification

growth spurt in adolescence- cartilage at the ends of long bones produces more bones

most of cartilage has been turned into bone- stopped growing- docs can tell if a person is still growing by the amount of cartilageis still there.

long bone structure structure (hollow) consists of-

a head covered with cartilage

a shaft containing bone marrow with many blood vessels

hollow structure- stronger than solid bones of the same mass.

bones problems-

a sharp knock- break a bone

broken bone- called a fracture

simple fractires- involves only bone

compound fractures- involves other tissues as well as skin

it is dangerous to move a person with a suspected fracture becuase the broken bones could pierce another organ or even sever the spinal cord. this could result in paralysis.

osteoporosis is a disease- suffered mainly by elderly

caused by- loss of minerals from bone- through poor diet or lack of exercise-makes bones soft- more susceptible to fractures.

joints-

synovial joints are movable and allow diiferent degrees of movement.

type of synovial joint- ball and socket- in shoulder and hip- degree- rotational

type of synovial joint- hinge- elbow and knee- degree- movement in one plane

part of synovial joint- synovial fluid- lubricates the moving surfaces reduces friction

part of synovial joint- synovial membrane- secretes synovial fluid, keeps fluid within the joint

part of synovial joint- cartilage-reduces friction

part of synovial joint- ligaments-attach bone to bone and keep joint together

artificial joints-

many joint diseases- pain and restricted movement for sufferer

can replace hip and knee joints with artificial joints

many disadvantages and advantages-

advantages-

quick recovery, free from pain, regain mobility, more active, allows independence, improved medical and mental health and finally new joints last longer and are not rejected.

disadvantages-

cannot be used where the joint is diseased and some people are not able to withstand surgery.

muscles-

pull a bone to move it when they contract.

can…

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