B3 Topic 2 Mating Behavior and Human Evolution

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How animals selected a mate: 1. Animals have a song or call e.g birds, whales and frogs. Usually the male makes the call to attract the female. 

2. Insects use pheromones as a sexual attractants in which the female produces. In months, the pheromones can be detected several kilometres away and the male can follow the trail. 

3. Animals fight with each other, but in displays which indicates strength and the weaker male backs down. 

4. Courtship displays which is used to impress the female. As it involves posturing, dancing, these are species specific because it ensures that the female with the right species. There is a link between the quality of the display and the fertility of the men. 

As female put more effort into the child rearing; it's important that she doesn't mate with a closely related species. This would result in an infertile offspring and the effort to pass along the genes would of been wasted. It also ensures that the next generation has a better chance of survival. 

Monogamous: staying with only one mare and this is favoured in an environment where resources are limited and the maximum survival of the young would be required by both parents. Their is a strong bond between the pair which keeps them together. For example, grey wolves mate for life and their bond is strengthen through co-operative hunting. 

Polygamous: More than 1 mating partner- dominant mating systems in mammals. This is seen when male take no part in the birth and the care of the young. It is also seen in mammals ls where the males has a group of females 'his harem. Therefore the species don't form a strong bonds with their mate so that they can produce more off springs in which over a life time will increase the population. For example bears would have many mates over a season and red deers having mating areas where their is food to attract the females. 

Parental care:

  • Few off springs produced (with low mortalitly rate)
  • Greater reproductive effort directed after birth.
  • Occurs in many birds and animals

Little or no parental care: 

  • Large number of off springs (with high mortality rates)
  • Reproductive efforts are low
  • Occurs in many invertebrates and reptiles. 

Occurs in both: 

  • Reproductive efforts directed at producing offspring
  • Greater survival rates

Parental Care

Protection: Involves either one parent staying with the young to keep them together and to fend off predators. For…


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