B2- enzymes

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proteins, catalysts and enzymes

  • protein molecules are made of long chains of amino acids
  • the chains form specific shapes depending on its function
  • they can be; tissues, hormones, antibodies or catalysts
  • a catalyst is a substance that provides an alternate route to the activation energy which speeds up the reaction and isn't used up
  • chemical reactions in a cell are controlled by proteins called enzymes- these are biological enzymes which speed up reactions
  • the shape of the enzyme is called the active site and the other molecules can be fit into that shape
  • the substrate can be held in the active site, connected to another molecule or broken down
  • enzymes can: build bigger molecules from smaller ones e.g. starch from glucose
  • convert one molecule into another e.g. a type of sugar into another one
  • break down large molecules into smaller ones e.g. in digestive system

factors affecting enzyme action

  • heat- the hotter the temp the more energy the molecules have so the more frequent the collisions BUT if it gets too hot…


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