B2- cells tissues and organs

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Animal and plant cells

  • all living things are made of cells
  • a cell is very small and can only be seen with a microscope
  • a cell contains: a nucleus- to control the cells activities and holds genetic material
  • cytoplasm- to control the cells chemical reactions
  • cell membrane- to allow substances to leave and enter the cell
  • mitochondria- to release energy by areobic respiration
  • ribosomes- to proteinsynthesis
  • plant cells also have; a cell wall- made of cellulose to give it a ridgid shape
  • chroplasts containing chlorophyll- to photosynthesise
  • permenant vacuole- containing sap

bacteria and yeast

  • bacteria cells have a cell membrane and a cell wall surrounded by cytoplasm
  • bacteria cells have NO nucleus so genetic material is in the cytoplasm
  • when bacteria multiplies it forms a colonie that can be seen with the naked eye
  • yeast cells have a nucleus surrounded by cytoplasm cell wall and cell membrane
  • yeast cells are single cell organisms

specialised cells

  • as an organism matures each cell develops into a particular type which is more suited to its role
  • muscle cells have lots of mitochondria for energy production
  • gland cells have lots of ribosomes to release enzymes
  • sperm cells have a long tail to swim
  • root hair cells increase the surface area so it can absorb more water


  • molecules of liquids and gases move around quickly because of energy they have
  • dissolved subtances can move into and out of cells by diffusion
  • diffusion is the spreading out of the particles of a gas or any solution
  • the net movement (the overall direction of flow) is determined by the concentration of particles on each side of the cell membrane
  • particles move from high concentration to low concentration because there is more room for them to spread out
  • the larger to differenc in concentration gradient the faster the rate…


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