Fitness is the ability to carry out physical tasks such as exercise and can be measured by:
Stamina - Also measures cardiovascular efficiency (The ability of the circulatory system to supply the muscles and body parts with enough oxygen)
Health is a measure of being free from diseases and illness.
Blood pressure is the force exerted by blood on the walls of the arteries.
Measuered in mmHg (millimetres of mercury) with a sphygomomanometer.
Optimum 120/80 - Systolic/diastolic
Systolic - Pressure when the heart contracts
Diastolic - Pressure when the heart relaxes
Factors that Increase it - (Hypertension)
Stress - Causes and increase in heart rate and therefore blood pressure
Age - Causes arteries to lose their elasticity meaning the blood flow is more constricted
Smoking - Carbon monoxide binds with the haemoglobin in the blood so it can't carry as much oxygen - the heart has to pump more to get the same amount of oxygen around the body.
Weight - Being overweight means that you have more cholesterol (usually used to make cell membranes) in your blood so that more plaque forms and narrows the arteries, restricting blood flow - Can cause thrombosis (blood clot) and if in the ppulmonary artery, can cause a heart attack. This can be solved with a heart bypass or a stent.
Salt - Salt causes the body to retain water which increases the volume of blood.
Effects of Hypertension
Organ damage (including kidney failure)
Heart disease - Cause vessels carrying blood to the heart either to burst or in the case of plaque build up stop the oxygen getting to the heart. This causes the part of the heart tissue to die and…