B1

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  • Created by: LouChiv
  • Created on: 14-03-14 19:43

B1 - Understanding Ourselves

Fitness and Health

Fitness - the ability to do physical activity

Health - To be free from disease

Aspects of Fitness

Aspect of Fitness

Definition

Method of measuring

Strength

Force produced by a set of muscles

Weight lifting

Stamina

How long you can sustain physical exercise.

Bleep test - how long you can keep running keeping your pulse normal

Flexibility

How easily and how far your joints allow you to bend

Sit and reach box

Agility

How easily you can twist and turn whilst moving

Agility course

Speed

How fast you can run

Timed spirit (of a certain distance)

Cardiovascular Efficiency

How well your heart supplies oxygen to your muscles

Take a pulse rate during exercise and at rest

Blood Pressure

-          Blood in the arteries is under pressure

-          Due to the contraction of heart muscles

-          So that the blood reaches all parts of the body

 

Measuring Blood Pressure

Systolic Pressure - This happens when the heart is contracting (the one ontop)

Diastolic Pressure - this happens when the heart relaxes between beats  (the one on the bottom)

Factors increasing blood pressure

-          Stress

-          High alcohol intake

-          Smoking

-          Obesity

Factors decreasing blood pressure

-          Regular exercise 

-          Diet high in Fruit and Fibre 

High Blood Pressure can cause blood vessels to burst. This can cause brain damage (a stroke) and damage to the kidneys.

 Low blood pressure can cause dizziness and fainting as the blood supply to the brain is reduced, and poor circulation to other areas such as the fingers and toes.

Smoking

Smoking causes an increase to blood pressure because - the carbon monoxide in the cigarette smoke combines with the haemoglobin in the blood reducing its capacity to carry oxygen.

Heart Disease

Heart disease is caused by restricted blood flow to the heart muscle.  These can lead to heart disease -

-          A high level of saturated fat in the diet leads to a build-up of cholesterol in the arteries

-          High levels of salt which can increase blood pressure

The narrowing of the arteries caused by plaques in the coronary arteries can reduce blood flow to the heart muscle. The plaques can also cause blood clots which will subsequently block the artery.

Balanced Diet

It is important to eat a balanced diet containing the right amounts of the chemicals found in food.

Some of these are -

Carbohydrates - which are made up of simple sugars such as glucose

Proteins - Which are made up of amino acids

Fats - which are made up of fatty acids and glycerol

If you eat too much fat or carbohydrate, they are stored in the body.

Carbohydrates - are stored in the liver as glycogen or are converted into fats

Fats - are stored under the skin and around organs as adipose tissue. Although proteins are essential for growth and repair they cannot be stored in

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