B1 - Understanding Ourselves
Fitness and Health
Fitness - the ability to do physical activity
Health - To be free from disease
Aspects of Fitness
Aspect of Fitness
Method of measuring
Force produced by a set of muscles
How long you can sustain physical exercise.
Bleep test - how long you can keep running keeping your pulse normal
How easily and how far your joints allow you to bend
Sit and reach box
How easily you can twist and turn whilst moving
How fast you can run
Timed spirit (of a certain distance)
How well your heart supplies oxygen to your muscles
Take a pulse rate during exercise and at rest
- Blood in the arteries is under pressure
- Due to the contraction of heart muscles
- So that the blood reaches all parts of the body
Measuring Blood Pressure
Systolic Pressure - This happens when the heart is contracting (the one ontop)
Diastolic Pressure - this happens when the heart relaxes between beats (the one on the bottom)
Factors increasing blood pressure
- High alcohol intake
Factors decreasing blood pressure
- Regular exercise
- Diet high in Fruit and Fibre
High Blood Pressure can cause blood vessels to burst. This can cause brain damage (a stroke) and damage to the kidneys.
Low blood pressure can cause dizziness and fainting as the blood supply to the brain is reduced, and poor circulation to other areas such as the fingers and toes.
Smoking causes an increase to blood pressure because - the carbon monoxide in the cigarette smoke combines with the haemoglobin in the blood reducing its capacity to carry oxygen.
Heart disease is caused by restricted blood flow to the heart muscle. These can lead to heart disease -
- A high level of saturated fat in the diet leads to a build-up of cholesterol in the arteries
- High levels of salt which can increase blood pressure
The narrowing of the arteries caused by plaques in the coronary arteries can reduce blood flow to the heart muscle. The plaques can also cause blood clots which will subsequently block the artery.
It is important to eat a balanced diet containing the right amounts of the chemicals found in food.
Some of these are -
Carbohydrates - which are made up of simple sugars such as glucose
Proteins - Which are made up of amino acids
Fats - which are made up of fatty acids and glycerol
If you eat too much fat or carbohydrate, they are stored in the body.
Carbohydrates - are stored in the liver as glycogen or are converted into fats
Fats - are stored under the skin and around organs as adipose tissue. Although proteins are essential for growth and repair they cannot be stored in…