Biology B1

B1.2 - Animal and Plant Cells

animal cell features common to all cells - nucleus, cytoplasm, mitochondria, cell membrane, ribosomes

plant and algal cells feature a cell wall made of cellulose, along with all the structures found in animal cells. 

many plant cells, such as palisades, contain chloroplasts and a sap-filled permanant vacuole.

B1.3 - Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic Cells

eukaryotic cells all have cytoplasm, cell membrane and genetic material enclosed in a nucleus.

prokaryotic cells consist of a cell membrane and cytoplasm, surrounded by a cell wall. The genetic material is not enclosed in a nucleus. It forms a single loop of DNA. Prokaryoic cells also contain plasmids, which are small extra rings of DNA.

All bacteria cells are prokaryotes. 

B1.4 - Specialisation in Animal Cells

As an organism develops, cells differentiate to become different types of cells. 

As an animal cell differentiates, it gets different sub-cellular structures to allow it to perform different functions.

examples of specialised animal cells are nerve cells, sperm cells and muscle cells. 

animal cells can be specialised to function in different tissues, organs, organ systems and organisms.

B1.5 - Specialisation in Plant Cells 

plant cells can be specialised to carry out specific functions



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