Klaus & Kenell (1976) - Skin-to-skin.
- Klaus & Kenell looked at 2 groups of newly born infants:
- Group 1 - allowed contact with mother during feeding in the first 3 days.
- Group 2 - allowed extended contact with the mother for several hours a day.
- After a month, the mothers of group 2 were found to cuddle their babies and make more eye contact.
- Klaus & Kenell believed that this showed greater contact led to a stronger and closer bond between mother and child and provided evidence for a "sensitive period."
- The mothers were young and unmarried. (Lacks population validity.)
- No dad might mean that the mothers tried to compensate for this.
- This study supports the idea of a "sensitive period."
- This study also changed the way babies were cared for in hospitals, by encouraging more physical contact.
- Also, this study can be easily repeated.
Schaffer & Emerson (1964).
- Longitudinal study on 60 babies at monthly intervals for the first 18 months of their lives.
- The children were all studied in their own home.
- Their interactions with their carers were observed and carers were interviews.
- Evidence for the development of attachment was that the baby showed separation after the carer left.
- They discovered that a baby's attachments develop in the following sequence:
- Up to 3 months of age: The newborn is predisposed to attach to any human.
- After 4 months: Infants learn to distinguish primary and secondary caregivers but accept care from anyone.
- After 7 months: Special preference for a single attachment figure.
- After 9 months: The baby becomes increasingly independent and forms several attachments.
- The parents were keeping daily diaries - although this can give qualitative date, it's reliability can be question. (socially desirable answers/biased.)
- The babies studied were all from Glasgow - not easy to generalize to the wider population.
- The babies were studied in a natural environment which makes it high in ecological validity.
- This study is also ethically sound as it was carried out in their own homes.
Harlow's Monkeys (1959) - "The origins of love."
- Harlow carried out a number of variations using sixteen young isolated monkeys.
- The important variations was that one monkey was in a cage with a wire mother that provided food and another mother covered with cloth.
- This provided the monkey with a choice when being introduced to a scary situation: food or comfort.
- The monkeys would spend more time clinging to the cloth mother and occasionally feeding from the other.
- When monkeys were stressed by a scary mechanical…