Atomic Structure

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Atomic Structure

Electrons - occupy the space around the nucleus and are arranged in discrete energy levels. (1/1840 amu, -1) Protons - found in the nucleus (1 amu, +1) Neutrons - found in the nucleus (1 amu, 0)

Mass number- total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom. Atomic number- the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom.      

Mass Spectrometer

WHAT IS THE MASS SPECTROMETER?  -Calibrated using carbon-12; abundant compound, exactly one mole. -Pattern shown is a mass spectrum; a series of peaks show the abundance of each ion and the x-axis shows the m/e charge ratio, the mass is usually +1. RAM= the sum of (mass of each isotope x % isotope)/the sum of % abundance for all isotopes.

Molecular ions; - bombarding electrons break up the molecule (and ionise it). - a molecular ion peak is formed when the molecule is ionised without being broken. -An ion formed by the removal of an electron from a molecule.- (mass= RMM)


  • Single lines on the spectrum are actually double lines due to sub-shells which are very close in energy. There are four different types of subshell; S,P,D,F.
  • An orbital is the region in which an electron can be


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