- "Dwarf with his hands on backwards" - Imagery: striking initial image. Pathetic idea of someone deformed / unusual.
- "A Priest explained how clever it was of Giotto to make his frescoes tell stories" - Irony: The speaker is critical of the priests and of the visitors: why should the ‘clever’ works of art need an explanation if they are indeed ingenious? This is ironic, of course: the beggar’s suffering is obvious yet, without an explanation, is apparently unnoticeable.
- "A rush of tourists, clucking contentidly" - Metaphor: the image is of a farmer scattering seed for…