Assess the reasons why the Crusader States survived until 1187?


Assess the reasons why the Crusader States survived until 1187?

  • Strong leadership of the Franks 
  • Muslim disunity
  • Help from Europe & Byzantium 
  • Unity of Outremer & Integration & Castles 


Strong leadership of the Franks 

Baldwin I took strategically important ports such as Acre in 1104, Beirut in 1110 and Sidon in 1110.

Baldwin II continued this and took Tyre in 1124.

Baldwin II also gave aid to Antioch following the defeat of Roger of Antioch in the Battle of the field of blood in 1119.

Baldwin II married his eldest daughter, Melisende, to Count Fulk of Anjou in 1129, this brought more support (fighting men) to the Crusader States.

Fulk was an outsider and this sparked rebellion from some within the Crusader States, most notably Hugh of Jaffa in 1134.

Fulk dies in 1143 leaving only his wife and his 13 year old son (Baldwin III) to rule, this is seen as weak. 

In 1149 at the battle of Inab, both Raymond of Tripoli and Raymond of Antioch die, resulting in Baldwin III having to rule the County of Tripoli and the Principality of Antioch, along side the Kingdom of Jerusalem. 

From 1150 to 1152 there is a mini civil war between Melisende and her son Baldwin III after he wants to have a greater role in controlling the Crusader States, it ends with victory for Baldwin III.

Baldwin III captures Tripoli in 1149.

Baldwin III captures Antioch in 1152.

Baldwin III captures Ascalon in 1153.

In 1153 Constance of Antioch marries Reynauld of Chatillon, bringing more fighting men to the Crusader states. 

Baldwin III dies in 1163 at the age of 33. 

His brother Amalric attempts to take Egypt, in order to consolidate power in the Near East, 4 times between 1163 and 1169.

Amalric dies aged 38 in 1174. 

Amalric's heir was his leper son Baldwin IV.

Due to being a leper Baldwin IV was expected to die young and never have any children. Therefore factions began to form during his rule, disagreeing on his eventual sucessor. The Doves, who were more adverse to conflict included Raymond of Tripoli, while the Hawks included Reynauld of Chatillon and Baldwin III's mother. 

Baldwin IV did have some military success, shown by his victory at Montgisard in 1177, the resisitance of Beirut in 1182 and when Kerak castle resisted besiegement in 1183



No comments have yet been made