Actus Reus - any act that causes V to apprehend an immediate infliction of unlawful force. 

- Actus reus is broken down into 3 main elements:

Causing V to apprehend violence; immediate violence; unlawful force

- There is no need for any physical contact 

- Can happen through:

words said such as "get out the knives" (Wilson)

Body language such as raising fists (Stephens v Myers)

Both such as rolling up sleeves and saying they will


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