AS/A2 Conditions, Reagents and Reactions

  • Created by: LucyLaa
  • Created on: 07-05-18 15:53

AS Organic Reactions

Free Radical Substitution (Alkane to Haloalkane)

Initiation --> Propagation --> Termination

Conditions: UV Light

e.g. 

Br2 à 2Br.

CH3 + Br. à CH2. + HBr

CH2. + Br2 à CH2Br + Br.

2Br.à Br2

 

Nucleophilic Substitution (Haloalkane to Alcohol/Nitrile/Amine)

Conditions: Warm haloalkane in:

- Aqueous NaOH or KOH

- Ethanolic KCN

- Ethanolic Ammonia

e.g.

 

Elimination (Haloalkane to Alkene)

Conditions:

·         Warm haloalkane in ethanolic hydroxide ions

·         Heat under reflux

e.g.

See the source image

 

Nucleophilic Addition (Aldehyde to Hydroxynitrile/Alcohol)

Conditions:

·         KCN for Hydroxynitrile

·         Aqueous NaBH4 for Alcohol

e.g.

This is also known as the reduction of an aldehyde or ketone when a primary or secondary alcohol is produced (SEE BELOW).

 

Reduction of Aldehydes and Ketones (Aldehyde/Ketone to Alcohol)

Equations:

R-COH + 2[H] à R-CH2-OH

R-COR + 2[H] à R-CH-(OH)-R

 

Electrophilic Addition (Alkene to Haloalkanes/Alkyl Hydrogensulphates)

Conditions:

·         Hydrogen halides used

·         Also reacts with Bromine and Conc. Sulfuric Acid

·         Major product produced due to stability of carbocation

 

Production of Ethanol

·         Hydration of Alkenes

Conditions:

- Steam

- 300oC and 60atm pressure

- H3PO4 acid catalyst

 

·         Fermentation

Conditions:

- Glucose and Yeast

- Anaerobic conditions

- 30-40oC

- Separated by fractional distillation

 

Fermentation is being increasingly used because it is a renewable biofuel, and is almost Carbon Neutral. However, there are some concerns attached…

 

A2 Organic Reactions

 

Esterification (Carboxylic Acid to Ester)

Conditions:

·        

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