AS SNAB DNA/Protein Synthesis

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Nucleic acids- information molecules of cells.

DNA- deoxyribonucleic acid.

RNA- ribonucleic acid

DNA/RNA- polymers monomers are nucleotides/ mononucleotides.

Each mononucleotide- 3 parts- pentose (5 CARBON) sugar, phosphate group and a nitrogen containing base.

Pentose Sug. In RNA- ribose, DNA- deoxyribose- (one less oxygen)

Nitrogen-containing bases found in nucleic acids-

PURINES- 2 Nitrogen rings—ADENINE, GUANINE

PYRIMIDINES- 1 Nitrogen ring- CYTOSINE, THYMINE

DNA- 4 base combo- 1 PURINE TO ONE PYRIMIDINES A-T G-C

RNA purine base same but thymine is replaced by Uracil.

DEOXYRIBOSE has OH, off carbon on bottom left pentagon corner, and H on bottom right, RIBOSE has both OH.

Phosphate group- makes nucleotides= nucleic acids are acidic

Sugar, Base and phosphate joined by CONDENSATION REACTIONS- loss 2 H20 molecules.

Mononucleotides linked by condensation reaction- polynucleotide strands.

Sugar from one bonds to phosphate in another= hydroxyl group at one end and phosphate at other.

RNA- forms singular polynuc. Strands- folded to shapes or remain thread.

DNA- two strands twisted around each other, one upside down.

Sugar/phosphate= backbone

Inwards= bases = spiralled DNA

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