AS Biology intro to enzymes

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Enzymes are all globular proteins which have tertiary protien structure containing disulfide , hydrogen and ionic bonds . these bonds can be broken when stress is put on to an enzyme due to external factors such as high pH or high temperature ( low too ) which are not the best conditions for the enzyme to function they all have what is called an optimum where they work best and have the highest rate of reaction

changes in temperature damage the hydrogen bonding where as changes in ph change the ionic bonding at first leading to inactivation which is fixable , however bigger changes will alter the hydrogen bonding too 

when an enzyme has been denatured , it is a permanent change to the shape of the active site of the enzyme and this will stop the substrate from bonding with the active site stopping the reaction from happening

the concentration of enzyme and substrate can also limit the rate of reaction as you do not have enough enzyme or substarate for the reaction to happen at a good constant rate of reaction

some enzymes need thigs called cofactors to make them work and these come in many different forms such as

  • activates - which bonds with the active site , the reaction can not take place with out it
  • co enzymes which are little non protein organic molecules which add on to the active…

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