AS Biology - Cell Structure - Organelles

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Organelles & Protein Production

  • Proteins are made at the ribosomes
  • Ribosomes on rough endoplasmic reticulum make proteins that are excreted or attached to the cell membrane.The free ribosomes in the cytoplasm make proteins that stay in the cytoplasm. 
  • New proteins at the rough endoplasmic reticulum are folded and processed (e.g. sugar chains are added).
  • They're transported from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi apparatus in vesicles
  • At the Golgi apparatus the proteins may undergo further processing (e.g sugar chains are trimmed or added).
  • Proteins enter more vesicles to be transported around the cell. E.g. extracellular enzymes (like digestive enzymes) move to the cell surface and are secreted.

Functions of the cytoskeleton

  • Organelles in cells are surrounded by the cytoplasm. The cytoplasm is more than just a solution of chemicals - it's got a network of protein threads running through it - these are called the cytoskeleton.
  • In eukaryotic cells protein threads are arranged as microfilaments (small solid strands) and microtubules (tiny protein cylinders).
  • They have 4 main functions:
    1) Microtubules and microfilaments help support the cell's organelles keeping them in position
    2) Help strengthen the cell and maintain its shape
    3) Responsible for transport of…





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