- what a thing (object or substance) is made from e.g. a bok is made from paper. so the matter that the book is made from is paper.
- refers to what makes the thing recognisable: its structure, shape or activity
- the agent or cause of the thing coming to exist as it is. the existence of a painting or work of art is brought about by the artist is brought about the artist who makes it. the artist is the effienct cause.
- the ultimate re+ason why the thing exists.
- material cause: its made of marble.
- formal cause: it…