Material Cause

  • what a thing (object or substance) is made from  e.g. a bok is made from paper. so the matter that the book is made from is paper.

Fromal Cause

  • refers to what makes the thing recognisable: its structure, shape or activity

Effiencient Cause

  • the agent or cause of the thing coming to exist as it is. the existence of a painting or work of art is brought about by the artist is brought about the artist who makes it. the artist is the effienct cause.

Final Cause

  • the ultimate re+ason why the thing exists.
  • material cause: its made of marble.
  • formal cause: it…


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