TOPIC 1; THE ROLE & PURPOSE OF EDUCATION
1) Functions of Education
♣ Secondary socialisation
Reinforcing process begun by parents, socialises young people into key cultural values.
♣ Economic role
Teaches skills to expand economy
♣ Selection & Allocation
Allocating people in acc to quals+talents, match to job
2) Theories : FUNCTIONALISTS
Claims, education =crucial agency of socialisation as central to the reproduction of culture thus society. Educ equips kids: future jobs.
♣ Social solidarity
Teaching of subjects such as History= central to Social solidarity as it enables children to feel a sense of belonging to society. Education promotes SS by transmitting society’s culture (shared values and beliefs from 1gen-other). Education could promote SS by promoting moral response to others.
♣ Society in miniature
Schools act as a Society in Miniature acting as bridge from family into wider society- transition between behave expected in private arena into public life.
♣ Specialist skills
Education teaches individs the specialist knowl & skills needed to play their part in social DOL … e.g. New Vocationlism- learners acquire job s pecfic know and skills. Specialist skills need to perform their role in DOL and meet societies economic needs.
Jobs= largely unspecialised = workers=basic skills
Family could provide informal education
Tech advances means higher level of education
Fam not equipped to transfer this skill
Thus formal education =direct response to economic needs.
STRUCUTURAL DIFFERNTIATION- PARSONS- SOCIETY=COMPLEX=SPECIALSED INSITIUTIONS EVOLVE TO ADDRESS NEEDS.
One of the functions of education is to allow social cohesion between members of society together.
Schools –bridge- between family & wider society.
♣ Particularistic Standards
Children loved regardless, treated special.
♣ Universalistic standards
In order for society to operate effectively, members of society need to learn universalistic standards. Judged just like everyone else.
Ascribed status (born with) Achieved status (earned on own ability + effort)
Meritocracy - means a society where there is equality of opportunity enabling the talented to rise up to occupy society's most demanding roles. Status is achieved rather than ascribed.
¥ Blau and Duncan (1978): Argue that meritocratic education systems makes sure that the best is always offered by allocating young people to those jobs that are best suited to their abilities.
∗ PARSONS AND DURKEHIM= structuralist, macro approach to the role of education *
DAVIS & MOORE- Argue that the role of education is to select and allocate people to occupations best suited to abilities.
Educational mechanisms (grades, examinations references) are used to sift & sort indivds into hierarchal layers based on intelligence & ability. In this sense, functionalists regard society as a meritocracy underpinned by equality of opportunity in which people are rewarded for; intelligence, effort & ability.