Approaches!!!

  • Created by: jesssb10
  • Created on: 20-06-17 21:17

Origins of Psychology

 

Definition: scientific study of mind + behaviour

 

Wilhelm Wundt (1879)  introspection

·      Analyse own thoughts + feelings internally

·      Study sensation + perception

 

¨    Doesn’t explain how it works = isn’t objective

¨    Data isn’t reliable = accounts cant be confirmed

  • Influenced other approaches
  • Believed in reductionism = simple cause + effect processes

 

Make something a science:

1.             Objectivity

2.             Control

3.             Predictability

4.             Hypothesis testing

5.             Replication

 

Arguments for:

·      Allport (1947) same aims: predict, understand + control

·      Behaviourist, cognitive + biological = use specific procedures (controlled + unbiased)

Arguments against:

·      Other approaches use unreliable methods

·      Hard to get representative sample = cant generalise

·      Open to extraneous variables eg. demand characteristics = hard to control

 

Behaviourist Approach

 

Assumptions:

·      All behaviours learnt from environment

·      Focus on observable behaviour

·      Animals + humans learn in same ways

·      All born as blank slate

·      Should be scientific + objective = do mainly lab experiments

 

Classical Conditioning – association (Pavlov)

 

·      Dogs conditioned to salivate to bell without food

·      Salivation = reflex (automatic) + no conscious processing

·      Rang bell (NS) before presenting food (UCS)

·      Over time = became associated together

·      Eventually: ringing bell (CS) resulted in salivation (CR)

 

Extra:

·      Continued ringing bell with no food = salivation stopped = EXTINCTION

·      Condition to certain tones = DISCRIMINATION

·      Transfer conditioned responses to similar objects = GENERALISATION

 

Operant Conditioning – consequences (Skinner)

 

·      Learning = active process = resulting from feedback + consequences of behaviour

·      Positive reinforcement = receiving reward

·      Negative reinforcement = performing action stops something unpleasant happening

·      Punishment = unpleasant consequence

 

Rat box – Skinner (1953)

·      Hungry rat in cage = activate lever = pellet in food dispenser (positive reinforcement)

·      Rats quickly learnt to pull after few times

·      Another time: subject to electric shocks = pulling lever stopped this (negative reinforcement)

 

Evaluation

 

1.             Real life application: behaviour modification = effect form of treatment + safer than drug therapy (side effects)

2.             Many experiments carried out on animals = different cognitively + physiologically = behave different so laws + principles derived cant be generalised

3.             Doesn’t take into account biological factors eg. role of neurotransmitters = low level serotonin give rise to depression

4.             Neglects influence of free will = argues our behaviour is result of previous conditioning (Skinner: free will = illusion)

5.             Doesn’t explain important aspects of human behaviour eg. memory + problem solving (internal mental events) = cant be observed

 

Social Learning Theory

 

Assumptions:

·      Bandura agreed with behaviourist: learnt through experience

·      Not conditioning

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