B2 1.1 - Animal and Plant Cells

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Notes from AQA Book:

Most cells have:

  • Nucleus to control the cell's activities.
  • Cytoplasm where many chemical reactions take place.
  • Cell Membrane that controls the movement of materials in and out of the cell.
  • Mitochondria where energy is released during aerobic respiration.
  • Ribosomes where protein synthesis takes place.

Plant and algal cells have all the ones above but they also have:

  • a rigid Cell Wall made of cellulose for support.
  • Chloroplasts that contain chlorophyll for photosynthesis; the chloroplasts absorb light energy to make food.
  • Permanent Vacuole containing cell sap.

Algae are simple aquatic organisms which have many features similar to plant cells.

Key Points:

  • Most human cells, like most animall cells, contain a nucleus, cytoplasm, cell membrane, mitochondria and ribosomes.
  • Plant and algal cells contain everything in an animal cell, plus many also contain chloroplasts and a permanent vacuole filled with sap.
  • Plant cells are different from animal cells because they


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