Anglo-Spanish relations under Mary 1st

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Anglo-Spanish Relations, 15 53-15 88





Mary’s Reign (15 53-15 58)


Marriage, 15 54





       Mary chose Philip of Spain over her other option of Henry Courtenay; the marriage would enhance her half-Spanish inheritance from her mother, Catherine of Aragon, and he already had a son from his first marriage, which ensured he would be able to provide England with an heir.  He was also, of course, Catholic, which matched Mary’s intentions of returning England to the papal fold

       Charles V was 53 years old and in the process of dividing his empire between his son and his brother, Ferdinand.  With Philip taking over Spain and the Netherlands, it would be very useful for the Habsburgs to have a strong bond with England in opposition to France

       Charles’ ambassador, Simon Renard, presented an official proposal of marriage to Mary on 10 October 15 53. 

The Treaty

       The Council consented to the terms of the treaty on 7 December 15 53, and it was approved by Parliament in April 15 54.  Philip himself had no direct part in the negotiations, but his father did agree to the majority of the terms, which were agreeable to England.  They included:

o   A son (or daughter) of the marriage would inherit England and the Low Countries but not Spain

o   If there were no heirs, or if Mary were to die before Philip, neither he nor his heirs would have any claim to the English throne

o   Philip was to receive the title ‘King’ and rule as joint sovereign, but he could not possess any sovereign authority in his own right

o   He could not promote foreigners to hold office in England

o   He had to uphold the laws of England

o   He was not allowed to take the Queen or any children they might have out of the country, without permission of the nobility

o   England was to uphold the treaties of 1543 and 1546 with the Netherlands, which stated that the former should come to the aid of the latter with 6,000 men if the provinces were invaded by the French

Response to the Marriage

       Mary and Philip met for the first time on 23 July 15 54, two days before their wedding at Winchester Cathedral

       Mary was very pleased with the


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