Anglo-Spanish relations under Elizabeth continued

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Causes of the War with Spain, 15 85-88

Political:

       There was constant pressure from her councillors to intervene in the Netherlands (Leicester and Walsingham).

       There was a Spanish army on her doorstep in the Netherlands, giving a real chance of invasion.

       Philip had the means to launch an invasion with Portuguese ocean going vessels. Philip became King of Portugal in 15 80. He had fewer distractions (not fighting the Turks) and more money.

       There was concern that Spain was supporting Mary Queen of Scots (imprisoned by Elizabeth).  Elizabeth had expelled the Spanish ambassador in 15 84 after the Throckmorton Plot.

       Elizabeth had encouraged the French to get involved in the Netherlands but with Anjou’s death in 15 84 there was less chance of French involvement. The French Catholics were now allied to Philip of Spain. Philip was free to attack England without fearing French intervention.

 

       Elizabeth felt forced to act in 15 85. William of Orange was killed in 15 84 and Duke of Parma (Governor General) seemed about to defeat rebels. He had won a number of victories in the early 15 80s.

Religion:

       There was increasing tension over religion.

       Elizabeth wanted to make sure that Catholic Spain did not control the Netherlands.

       Philip wanted to see a Catholic England. Elizabeth had been excommunicated in 15 70.  Invasion and war could be justified.

       She had aided Protestant rebels in Scotland, France and the Netherlands.

       Protestant Elizabeth had executed Edmund Campion, a Jesuit priest in 15 81.

       Philip was allied with the French Catholics after the Treaty of Joinville of 15 84.

       The Spanish were involved in the Throckmorton Plot in 15 84 supporting the Catholic Mary Queen of Scots

       Elizabeth had encouraged the French to get involved in the Netherlands but with Anjou’s death in 15 84 there was less chance of French involvement. The French Catholics were now allied to Philip of Spain. Philip was free to attack England without fearing French intervention.

Economic:

       There was tension over the actions of English privateers – preying on Spanish shipping convoys carrying silver from the New World.

       Much of English cloth trade went through Antwerp though Elizabeth was keen to open up new markets.

       In 15 62 and 15 64 John Hawkins sold African slaves in America (without a license from Spain). He was attacked by the Spanish in San Juan de Ulua in 15 68.

       Cecil seized Spanish treasure ships sheltering in English ports in  .

       From 15 77-80 Sir Francis Drake sailed around the world. He captured the Spanish ship Cacafuego carrying £140,000 worth of treasure. In total he returned with £400,000.

       Spain protested but Elizabeth seemed to reward these sailors.

 

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