- Part of the vocal cords and is located between the pharynx and the trachea.
- It is made up of cartilage.
- There are two and they are surrounded by the plural membrane.
- The lungs are divided up into lobes; two on the left and three on the right.
- Connects the larynx with the bronchus and progressively into the smaller dimensions called the bronchiole.
- It is a flexible fibro elastic and muscular structure which allows the neck to move.
- Allows the transport of oxygen from the atmosphere to the lungs and carbon dioxide from the lungs into the atmosphere.
- It is strengthened by rings of cartilage to prevent it come collapsing.
- Contains cilia and mucus, which are hair like structures which traps dust and bacteria which is within the air, as it passes down the trachea.
- A collection of fine hairs that cover the inside of the trachea.
- They help to trap small particle and foreign bodies.
- Move in waves in one direction back up towards the head.
- Goblet cells / mucus moving, wafting.
- It splits into two tubes and so enables air to pass into both lungs.
- Cells in the bronchi contain cilia to trap pathogens and prevent disease.
- It splits into smaller divisions called the bronchioles.
- They are tiny tubes within the lungs.
- They are connections of the bronchus.
- The bronchioles are attached to tiny air sacs called the alveoli, where gas exchange takes place by the use of diffusion into the pulmonary capillaries.
- They are very thin – only one cell thick (epithelium).
- They have a large surface area to volume ratio.
- They are moist to assist with the diffusion of gases.
- Their function is gas exchange.
- Small air sacs that allow the diffusion of oxygen across their membrane into red blood cells in the surrounding capillaries.
- They also allow the diffusion of carbon dioxide from the blood plasma to diffuse back into the alveoli.
- Elasticised tissue to allow expansion.
- They are lubricated and surround the whole lungs to keep them moist.
- Without the pleural membranes, the lungs would face resistance and friction from the chest wall while they are expanding and contracting, which may cause shortness of breath ect.
- It is a sheet of internal muscle.
- It is dome shaped when relaxed.
- Extends across the bottom of the rib cage.
- Divides the lungs and hearth from the stomach, kidney, liver etc.
- Helps with the mechanism of breathing.
- The intercostal muscles help bring enlargement of the thorax.
- A large dome shaped muscle that contracts and relaxes causing the chest cavity to increase and decrease in volume allowing the lungs to expand and contract (breathing).
- Changes pressure / maintains pressure within the lungs.
Mechanisms of Breathing
This is done by two processes:
- Inspiration - breathing in.
- Expiration - breathing out.
These processes rely on pressure changes within the lungs, these are controlled by two sets of muscles:
- The diaphragm: