Anatomy and physiology

HideShow resource information
  • Created by: Vicky
  • Created on: 25-11-12 15:05

There are 206 bones in the human body. Ligaments join together muscles. The axial skeleton, includes head, neck, rib cage, sternum and vertebrae column. The appendicular skeleton, includes pelvis and limbs.

Flexion in the sagittal plane - decrease in angle or bending ankle.
Extension in the sagittal plane - increase in angle or straightening the elbows, knees, hips and shoulders.
Ankle movements: plantar flexion - pointing toes. Doris flexion - flexing toes upwards.
Movement in the planes.
Abduction in the frontal plane - movement from the body.
Adduction in the frontal plane - adding to the midline of the body, bring back in.
Lateral flexion in the frontal plane - movement of the head or trunk sideways away from the midline of the body.
Inversion of the feet in the frontal plane - adduction of the foot and so the foot twists to point to the midline of the body.
Eversion of the feet in the frontal plane - abduction of the foot and so the foot twists out wards from the midline of the body.
Elevation in the frontal plane - upward movement of the shoulders (scapula).
Depression in the frontal plane - downward movement of the shoulders (scapula).
Lateral and medical rotation in the transverse plane - rotation of limbed towards or away from the midline of the body.
Pronation in the transverse plane - putting the weight on the inside of your feet.
Supination in the traverse plane - putting the weight on the outside of your feet.
Adduction and abduction in the transverse - adding to and removing from the midline of the body but the limb performing the motion is horizontal to the floor.
Other movements
Circumduction - combination of flexion, extension, adduction and abduction and can only happen at ball and socket joints. It can happen in the saggital and frontal planes.
 
Muscles
3 types of muscle: smooth, cardiac and skeletal.
Smooth and cardiac muscles are involuntary. Skeletal muscles are voluntary and is what causes us to move.
Tendons - attaches bones to muscle and they pull on the bones to make them move. Two attachments for every muscle to different bones.
Origin of the muscle is normally attached to a flat and stable bone and is located towards the proximal end of the muscle (towards the midline of the body).
The insertion of the muscle is normally attached to the bone it is pulling and is located at the distal end of the muscle (away from the midline of the body).
Levers
A lever is a bar that rotates around a fixed point. In the body, the bones, joints and muscles combine to make a lever. Levers have three components: fulcrum - point of pivot. Effort - where the force is being applied from. Load - where the resistance against the movement is placed.
There are three types of levers: one, two or three.
First class lever has the fulcrum in the middle. This type of lever is used for increasing speed,

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Physical Education resources:

See all Physical Education resources »See all Anatomy & physiology resources »