Anatomy and Physiology

  • Created by: Emily
  • Created on: 13-01-11 09:24

Major Muscles

Wrist - Wrist flexors (flexion), Wrist extensors (extension)

Radio-ulnar- pronator teres  (pronation), Supinator (supination)

Elbow - Bicep brachii (flexion), Tricep Brachii (extension)

Shoulder - Anteriod deltiod (flexion), Middle deltiod (abduction), posterior deltiod (extension), Latissimus dorsi (adduction), Pectoralis major (horizontal flexion), trapezius (horizontal extension), teres minor (lateral rotation), infraspinatus (lateral rotation), teres major, subscapularis (medial rotation)

Spine - Rectus abdominus (flexion) Erector spinae group (extension) External obliques (lateral flextion and rotation) Internal obliques (lateral flexion and rotation

Hip - Illopsoas (flexion) Gluteus maximus (extension) Gluteus medius


Synovial Joints

Free movement - least stable. Joints between the arms and legs

Ligaments - Joins bone to bone

Synovial fluid - Lubricates it reducing friction

Articulating cartaliage - acts as a shock absorber

Joint Capsule - Fibrous tissue encasing the joint, adding stability

Synovial membrane - lines the joint capsule - secretes synovial fluid

Bursa - sac filled with synovial fluid between ligaments and tendons preventing friction

Pads of Fat - Provides a cushion between capsule and bone muscle

Meniscus - wedge of white fibrocartilage makes joint more stable reducing wear and tear.

There are two other types of joints:

  • Fibrous - No movement - most stable (skull)
  • Cartilaginous - Little movement- stable ( joints bettwen vertabrae)

Types of Synovial Joint

Ball and socket - Ball head shaped head articulates with a cup like socket- great range of movement (shoulder, hip)

Hinge - Uniaxial joint - movement in 1 plane ( elbow, knee)

Pivot - unaxial - only allows rotation (neck)

Condyloid -shallower version of ball and socket (wrist)

Gliding - Flat surfaces glide past one another (carpels)

Movements of synovial Joints

  • Flexion - extension
  • Horizontal flexion and extension
  • Abduction and adduction
  • Rotation
  • Circumduction
  • pronation and supernation
  • Lateral flexion
  • dorsiflexion and plantar flexion

Types of Muscle Fibre

 Slow twitch muscle fibres - Contract slowly, do not produce as much force. It is suited to more aerobic work. Contain more mitochondria and myoglobin.

Fast twitch muscle Fibres - contract quicker, produce more force, suitable to anaerobic work. They are less resistance to fatigue. There are two types:

Type 2b: greatest anaerobic capacity - contract with the most speed and force.

Characteristics of Muscle tissue

Excitability - muscles react to stimulus

Contractibility - muscles contract and apply force

Extensibility - muscles can stretch

Elasticity - muscles return to their original resting length.

Muscle Contraction

Isometric contraction - When a muscle increases in tension but there is no movement in the joint

Concentration Contraction - When a muscle shortens producing movement

Eccentric contraction - When a muscle lengthens under tension producing movement.

The effect of Warm up and Cool down on skeletal Muscle tissue

Warming up

  • increases core temperature of the body
  • Increased speed and force of contraction
  • Improved economy of movement
  • haemoglobin releases oxygen in muscle tissue more readily
  • Increased flexibility

Cooling down

  • Lowering the core temperature of the body
  • Faster removal of lactic acid from fast twitch muscle fibre
  • Faster removal of carbon dioxide
  • Reduction in the risk of




very good



This has saved me a lot of time, thanks :) 



Very helpful! 



Great summary of content. Thanks :)