Discuss the alternatives to the Multi-store model
The multi-store model of memory puts forward the idea of memory being stored in only three stores; the sensory, the short term and the long term. Alternatives to the multi-store model involve the levels of processing theory and the working memory theory. The alternatives give more complex views to how our memory works, However the multi-store model was influential to both of the alternative theories as it was one of the first models to be created on memory.
The theory of levels of processing was introduced by Craik and Lockhart in 1972. This provided an alternative to the multi-store model of memory, although Craik and Lockhart did accept the existence of different stores for short term and long term memory. The levels of processing theory produced the idea of information being encoded and processed into the short term memory on three different levels. The three different levels of processing included shallow, medium and deep levels. The shallow level was information that was encoded through visual information, the medium level was information that was encoded through acoustic information and the deepest level was information that was encoded semantically, meaning it was understood. Craik and Lockhart claimed that the deeper the level of processing, the stronger, more durable and longer lasting the memory can be.
P - Craik and Tulving supported the levels of processing model.
E - In their research they showed participants a list of sentences with words missing and a corresponding list of words to fill in the gaps and participants were asked to identify the words. Their findings showed that the most recalled words were the ones that were semantically encoded, following by those acoustically encoded, then structurally encoded.
C - This supports the idea that the deeper the level of processing, the stronger the memory.
P - Morris et al (1977) criticised the levels of processing model.
E - They claimed that semantic processing doesn’t always lead to better rehearsal, suggesting that visual or acoustic encoding may lead to better rehearsal.
C - This goes against the levels of processing theory as that suggests that semantic processing leads to the best rehearsal, followed by acoustic processing and then visual processing.
P - A strength of the levels of processing model is that is it reliable.
E - The research done by Craik and Tulving is very easily replicated and replicas have stated the same findings.
C - Therefore suggesting that there are different…