All AQA Chem 4 Reactions

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AQA Chem 4 Reactions

Aldehyde nucleophilic addition reaction:

Nu = nucleophile (e.g. CN).

RCHO +HNu --> RC(Nu)(OH)H

Ketone nucleophilic addition reaction:

Nu = nucleophile (e.g. CN-)

R'CRO + HNu --> R'C(Nu)(OH)R

Reducing an aldehyde using NaBH4 (represented as [H]):

RCHO + 2[H] --> RCH2(OH)

Reducing a ketone using NaBH4 (represented as [H]):

R'CRO + 2[H] --> R'CR(OH)

Formation of an ester (methyl ethanoate) using methanol and ethanoic acid:


A strong acid catalyst (e.g. conc. H2SO4) is required. It is a reversible reaction. The reverse reaction is called acid hydrolysis.

Base hydrolysis of esters using methyl ethanoate:


A strong base catalyst (e.g. NaOH in this example) is required. Sodium ethanoate is the product of this reaction. (Note: the bond between O and Na is ionic, so do not draw a covalent bond between them. Instead, show the charges as above).

Hydrolysis of triglyceride using NaOH:

Boil the triglyceride with NaOH.


Glycerol (propane-1,2,3,-triol) and sodium salts are formed. The salts are used as soaps. Glycerol is used in pharmaceutical and cosmetic preparations, medicines, toothpaste, food colourings and as a plasticiser.

Formation of biodiesel from the reaction of a triglyceride ester and methanol:

CH2O(CO(CH2)14CH3)CHO(CO(CH2)14CH3)CH2O(CO(CH2)14CH3) + 3CH3OH --> CH2(OH)CH(OH)CH2(OH) + 3 CH3OCO(CH2)14CH3

Electrophilic addition reaction of benzene:

El = electrophile (e.g.NO2+)

C6H6 + El+ --> C6H5El + H+

Formation of the nitronium ion to catalyse the nitration of benzene:

Concentrated sulfuric acid (catalyst) and concentrated nitric acid is required.

H2SO4 + HNO3 --> H2NO3+ + HSO4-

H2NO3+ then loses a water molecule and forms NO2+ which is the nitronium ion:

H2NO3+ --> NO2+ + H2O



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