-- The social learning theory-argues that aggression stems from the influence of the environment. Aggression is said to be learnt through observation, imitation and reinforcement or vicarious reinforcement (watching somebody else's reinforcement) Bandura argued for social learning to occur, the child must be able to form a mental representation of the behaviour within their environment and be motivated by the rewards.
A02: Bandura's Bobo doll study-supports learning theory as the group of children who watched the positive reniforcment were more likely to repeat the behaviour. However, they may have hit the doll for experience not a sinister act (what its built for). Philips-supports, he found after boxing matches in the US, homocides increased which shows they observed and imitated the behaviour. Notel Study-Supports, aggression levels increased after TV was introduced compare to 2 other towns were TV was still not introduced. Also shows the influence of imitating behaviour. Cultural research-supports, Mead's tribe study (challenges biology). Strength-Learning theory can explain why people are aggressive intermittently.
-- Deindividuation (linked with social learning)-Refers to the loss of self awareness and personal identity when part of a crown or wearing a disguise. In crowds, people often feel anonymous, less contrained, less responsible, increased confidence and unidentifiable due to diffusion of responsibility. This is called social contagion.
A02: Mann-found in 21 suicide cases, there had been suicide baiters shouting 'jump' wich was more common when it was dark, larger crowds, they were near the back and were hooded, supports this theory. Check-Supports, found in a male university, what they would do if clear of all consequences third top answer was ****. Watson-Supports, found over different cultures, those who wore most costumes and face paints were more likely to kill. Zimbado-Supports, his electric shock study with females and found those with hodds like the klu klux klan were more likely to give higher shocks. Deiner-Supports, naturalistic-1300 trick or treaters and those with most covering costumes were more likely to steal. Limitation- Not all crowds turn aggressive (choir, religious gatherings). Limitation-does not take into account other aspects which contribute to football holliganism like alcohol. Strength-Led to positive implications (CCTV, mirrors at football games).
--- Institutional aggression
1-Importation model: Argues that prisoners import aspects of their personality into prison, their behaviour is the same as it would be on the outside and they are in prison for a reason. This model identifies 3 prison subcultures; convict (most aggressive), Criminal (some aggressive behaviour, seek loyalty), Conventional (least aggressive, one off prisoners)
A02: Keller&Wang-Support, found most prison violence occured in maximum security prisons which shows more aggression is taken into these prisons due to the criminals sent there. However, inmates are also exposed to more aggression so are likely to become involved. Delsi-Supports, found those in a gang before entering prison were more likely to be involved in more…