Schulse-Eisenstein" - compound proper noun; note the linking of the German name 'Schulse' and the Jewish name 'Eisenstein'.
"Herrn" - German address.
"Schloss" - German noun equivalent to 'castle', this address thus denotes the wealth of the Schulse family.
"!" - opening exclamative, indicates the strong emotions and personal affection of the writer towards the recipient.
"Unter den Linden" - German phrase which translates as 'Under the Lime Trees'. Unter Den Linden is a famous street in Berlin. It symbolises the intellectual, political, and philosophical freedom that characterised Germany before World War I. Max's nostalgic memories of Unter den Linden is ironic given the rising menace of Nazism taking hold of Germany.
"Freedom", "comradeship", "spirit", "arrogance", "militarism", and "culture" - a string of abstract nouns that emphasise the extent to which Max idealises Germany. Max's assertions…