Definition of addiction: addiction or dependence is characterised by a continuous or intermittent craving for a substance to avoid a dysphoric state. There is a difference between excessive enthusiasm for a substance and an addiction is that enthusiasms and to life. Whereas, addictions take away from it.
FACTORS - personality, self esteem, peer pressure, family life, social context, age, stress, gender.
Reasons to start smoking between 14-16 are likely to be from the worries of their image, peer pressure, family influence and stress.
There is found to be a positive correlation between maintenance and relapse.
Research::::: Shram - injected nictotine into rats and found that adolescents experienced a greater reward from it than the aversive effects
Data from canada youth smoking -found smokers who started between 12-15 were more likely to drink/binge drink and smoke cannabis. It implies that smoking, especially at a young age is a 'gateway' to progressing onto other legal and illegal drug use.
Research::::: Sussman and Ames - found peer use of drugs is a strong predictor, demonstrating the influence of social networking in determining levels of individual…