Definition - Addiction or dependence is characterised by a continuous or intermittent craving for a substance to avoid a dysphoric state (depression, guilt or anxiety)
The difference between an excessive enthusiasm for a sunstance and an addiction is that enthusiasms add to life. Whereas, addictions take away from it.
Factors - personality, self esteem, peer pressure, family life, social context, age, gender, stress.
Reasons to start smoking between 14-16... image, peer pressure, family influence, stress.
There is a positive correlation between maintenance and relapse. 2006 - 17.3% of adolescents in 132 countries were smokers.
Shram 2006 injected nicotine into rats. He found adolescents experienced a greater reward from it than the aversive effects.
Data from health canada youth smoking 2006 found smokers who started between 12-13 were more likely to binge drink and smoke weed. It implies that smoking is a 'gateway' to progressing onto other legal and illegal drugs.
Sussman and Ames 2001 found peer use of drugs is a strong predictor. Demonstrating the influence of social networking in determining levels of vulnerability. However, poor parental supervision oe drug-use tolerant or drug using themselves is another social influence relating…